Clusters are local networks of closely-knit businesses and institutes representing a specific industry. Clusters include a group of related industries and other entities important for competition. Their members are e.g. suppliers of special inputs such as components, machinery and services and providers of special infrastructures. Clusters often expand downwards to cover sales channels and customers and sideways to include manufacturers of complementary products and businesses operating in industries related in terms of expertise, technologies or joint inputs. Large numbers of clusters also comprise governmental or other institutes such as universities, regulatory agencies, research teams or business associations that provide specialist training schemes, education, information, research and technical support.
What are clusters?
The term 'cluster' is understood to mean an industry grouping of regional companies with identical or similar business activities that cooperate and concurrently compete with one another. By clustering the companies enhance their competitiveness.
Successful clusters improve the performance of their members, support research and development activities, provide training to the businesses involved, increase export figures, encourage regional development and give their members a competitive advantage.
Firmy zapojené do klastru centrálně řeší společné problémy, vzájemně se doplňují, jsou flexibilnější na trhu, mohou vyhovět větším zakázkám atd.
Cluster members resolve common problems on a central basis, complement one another, are more flexible in the market, can handle large-scale orders etc.
Universities play a major role in local clusters by providing an important scientific base and bringing research findings into the innovative process in clusters.
Clusters may be very diverse in structure, depending on their focus, membership and related conditions.